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Journal Issue: Children and Electronic Media Volume 18 Number 1 Spring 2008

Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships
Kaveri Subrahmanyam Patricia M. Greenfield

Endnotes

  1. Cliff Lampe, Nicole Ellison, and Charles Steinfeld, “A Face(book) in the Crowd: Social Searching vs. Social Browsing,” Proceedings of the 2006 20th Anniversary Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (New York: ACM Press, 2006), pp. 167–70.
  2. Stephanie Dunnewind, “R U Still Up? Teens Are Text-Messaging Friends into the Wee Hours,” Seattle Times, Living section, March 31, 2007 (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/living/2003644903_ textsleep31.html [accessed August 9, 2007]).
  3. Elisheva F. Gross, “Adolescent Internet Use: What We Expect, What Teens Report,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25, no. 6 (2004): 633–49.
  4. Amanda Lenhart and Mary Madden, “Social Networking Websites and Teens: An Overview” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2007) (www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_SNS_Data_Memo_Jan_2007.pdf [accessed August 9, 2007]).
  5. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and others, In Their Words: Connecting Online Weblogs to Developmental Processes, California State University–Los Angeles, November 2007.
  6. Dunnewind, “R U Still Up?” (see note 2).
  7. Janis Wolak, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor, “Escaping or Connecting? Characteristics of Youth Who Form Close Online Relationships,” Journal of Adolescence 26, no. 1 (2003): 105–19.
  8. Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin, “Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet. A Quantitative Content Analysis of MySpace,” Journal of Adolescence, forthcoming.
  9. Dana Boyd, “Social Network Sites: Public, Private, or What?” Knowledge Tree 13 (http://kt. flexiblelearning.net.au/tkt2007/?page_id=28 [June 26, 2007]).
  10. Laurence Steinberg, Adolescence (New York: McGraw Hill, 2005).
  11. Washington Post, “In Teens' Web World, MySpace Is So Last Year,” (http://www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/28/AR2006102800803.html [August 9, 2007]).
  12. John Hill, “Early Adolescence: A Framework,” Journal of Early Adolescence 3, no.1 (1983): 1–21.
  13. Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Patricia M. Greenfield, and Brendesha Tynes, “Constructing Sexuality and Identity in an Online Teen Chatroom,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25, no. 6 (2004): 651–66.
  14. Steinberg, Adolescence (see note 10).
  15. Gross, “Adolescent Internet Use” (see note 3).
  16. Bonka S. Boneva and others, “Teenage Communication in the Instant Messaging Era,” in Information Technology at Home, edited by Robert E. Kraut and others (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 612–72.
  17. Lenhart and Madden, “Social Networking Websites and Teens” (see note 4).
  18. Rebecca E. Grinter and Margery A Eldridge, “y do tngrs luv 2 txt msg?” Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work ECSCW '01 (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001), pp. 219–38.
  19. Rebecca E. Grinter and Margery A Eldridge, “Wan2tlk?: Everyday Text Messaging,” Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM Press, 2003), pp. 441–48.
  20. Amanda Lenhart, Lee Rainie, and Oliver Lewis, “Teenage Life Online: The Rise of the Instant-Message Generation and the Internet's Impact on Friendships and Family Relationships” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2001) (http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Report.pdf/ [August 9, 2007]).
  21. Patti Valkenburg and Jochen Peter, “Preadolescents' and Adolescents' Online Communication and Their Closeness to Friends,” Developmental Psychology 43, no. 2 (2007): 267–77.
  22. Patti Valkenburg, Jochen Peter, and Alexander Schouten, “Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 9, no. 5 (2006): 584–90.
  23. Adriana A. Manago and others, “Self-Presentation and Gender Differences on the MySpace Network,” Department of Psychology, UCLA, 2007.
  24. Larry Rosen, Me, MySpace, and I: Parenting the Net Generation (New York: Palgrave, Macmillan, forthcoming).
  25. NCH, “Putting U in the Picture: Mobile Bullying Survey 2005” (http://www.nch.org.uk/uploads/documents/Mobile_bullying_%20report.pdf [August 9, 2007]).
  26. Janis Wolak, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor, “Online Victimization of Youth: Five Years Later,” National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Bulletin (2006) (http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV138.pdf [August 9, 2007]).
  27. Jaana Juvonen and Elisheva F. Gross, “Extending the School Grounds? Bullying Experiences in Cyberspace,” University of California–Los Angeles, 2007.
  28. Michelle L. Ybarra and Kimberly J. Mitchell, “Youth Engaging in Online Harassment: Associations with Caregiver-Child Relationships, Internet Use, and Personal Characteristics,” Journal of Adolescence 27, no. 3 (2004): 319–36.
  29. Michelle L. Ybarra, “Linkages between Youth Depressive Symptomatology and Online Harassment,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior 7, no. 2 (2004): 247–57.
  30. Juliana Raskauskas and Ann D. Stoltz, “Involvement in Traditional and Electronic Bullying among Adolescents,” Developmental Psychology 43, no. 3 (2007): 564–75.
  31. Juvonen and Gross, “Extending the School Grounds?” (see note 27).
  32. Dunnewind, “R U Still Up?” (see note 2).
  33. David Šmahel and Kaveri Subrahmanyam, “Any Girls Want to Chat Press 911: Partner Selection in Monitored and Unmonitored Teen Chat Rooms,” CyberPsychology and Behavior 10, no. 3 (2007): 346–53.
  34. Kaveri Subrahmanyam, David Šmahel, and Patricia M. Greenfield, “Connecting Developmental Processes to the Internet: Identity Presentation and Sexual Exploration in Online Teen Chatrooms,” Developmental Psychology 42, no. 3 (2006): 395–406.
  35. Lalita K. Suzuki and Jerel P. Calzo, “The Search for Peer Advice in Cyberspace: An Examination of Online Teen Health Bulletin Boards,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25, no. 6 (2004): 685–98.
  36. Zbynek Vybíral, David Smahel, and Radana Divínová, “Growing Up in Virtual Reality: Adolescents and the Internet,” in Society, Reproduction, and Contemporary Challenges, edited by Petr Mares (Brno: Barrister & Principal, 2004), pp.169–88.
  37. Kenzie A. Cameron and others, “Adolescents' Experience with Sex on the Web: Results from Online Focus Groups, Journal of Adolescence 28, no. 4 (2004): 535–40.
  38. Joanne Cantor and Marie-Louise Mares, “Autobiographical Memories of Exposure to Sexual Media Content,” Media Psychology 5, no. 1 (2003): 1–31.
  39. Stephen T. Russell, Brian T. Franz, and Anne K. Driscoll, “Same-Sex Romantic Attraction and Experiences of Violence in Adolescence,” American Journal of Public Health 91, no. 6 (2001): 903–06.
  40. Lenhart, Rainie, and Lewis, “Teenage Life Online” (see note 20).
  41. Lampe, Ellison, and Steinfeld, “A Face(book) in the Crowd: Social Searching vs. Social Browsing” (see note 1).
  42. Stephen P. Andon, “Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships,” Florida State University, 2007.
  43. Robert E. Kraut and others, “Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being?” American Psychologist 53, no. 9 (1998): 1017–31.
  44. Boneva and others, “Teenage Communication in the Instant Messaging Era” (see note 16).
  45. Janis Wolak, Kimberly Mitchell, and David Finkelhor, “Close Online Relationships in a National Sample of Adolescents,” Adolescence 37, no. 147 (2002): 441–55.
  46. Annenberg Public Policy Center, “Stranger Contact in Adolescent Online Social Networks” (Philadelphia: Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, September 2006) (http://www.annenberg publicpolicycenter.org/Releases/Release_HC20060920/Report_HC20060920.pdf [August 10, 2007]).
  47. Lenhart and Madden, “Social Networking Websites” (see note 4).
  48. Gustavo Mesch and Ilan Talmud, “The Quality of Online and Offline Relationships, the Role of Multiplexity and Duration,” Information Society 22, no. 3 (2006): 137–49.
  49. Darius K. S. Chan and Grand H. L. Cheng, “A Comparison of Offline and Online Friendship Qualities at Different Stages of Relationship Development,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 21, no. 3 (2004): 305–20.
  50. Young-Ok Yum and Kazuya Hara, “Computer-Mediated Relationship Development: A Cross-Cultural Comparison,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11, no.1 (2005): 133–52.
  51. Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor, “Close Online Relationships” (see note 45).
  52. Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor, “Escaping or Connecting” (see note 7).
  53. Timothy J. Beebe and others, “Heightened Vulnerability and Increased Risk-Taking among Adolescent Chat Room Users: Results from a Statewide School Survey,” Journal of Adolescent Health 35, no. 2 (2004): 116–23.
  54. Jochen Peter, Patti M. Valkenburg, and Alexander P. Schouten, “Developing a Model of Adolescent Friendship Formation on the Internet,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 8, no. 5 (2005): 423–30.
  55. Jochen Peter, Patti M. Valkenburg, and Alexander P. Schouten, “Characteristics and Motives of Adolescents Talking with Strangers on the Internet,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 9, no. 5 (2006): 526–30.
  56. Elisheva F. Gross, Jaana Juvonen, and Shelley Gable, “Internet Use and Well-Being in Adolescence,” Journal of Social Issues 58, no. 1 (2002): 75–90.
  57. Elisheva Gross, “Logging on, Bouncing Back: An Experimental Investigation of Online Communication Following Social Exclusion,” University of California–Los Angeles (2007).
  58. Suzuki and Calzo, “The Search for Peer Advice in Cyberspace” (see note 35).
  59. Lalita K. Suzuki and Ivan I. Beale, “Personal Home Web Pages of Adolescents with Cancer: Self- Presentation, Information Dissemination, and Interpersonal Connection,” Journal of Oncology Nursing 23, no. 3 (2006): 152–61.
  60. Suzuki and Calzo, “The Search for Peer Advice in Cyberspace” (see note 35).
  61. Dina L. G. Borzekowski, Julius N. Fobil, and Kofi O. Asante, “Online Access by Accra's Adolescents: Ghanaian Teens' Use of the Internet for Health Information,” Developmental Psychology 42, no. 3 (2006): 450–58.
  62. Janis L. Whitlock, Jane L. Powers, and John Eckenrode, “The Virtual Cutting Edge: The Internet and Adolescent Self-Injury,” Developmental Psychology 42, no. 3 (2006): 407–17.
  63. Andrew J. Winzelberg, “The Analysis of an Electronic Support Group for Individuals with Eating Disorders,” Computers in Human Behavior 13, no. 3 (1997): 393–407.
  64. Whitlock, Powers, and Eckenrode, “The Virtual Cutting Edge” (see note 62).
  65. Brendesha Tynes, Lindsay Reynolds, and Patricia Greenfield, “Adolescence, Race, and Ethnicity on the Internet: A Comparison of Discourse in Monitored vs. Unmonitored Chat Rooms,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 25, no. 6 (2004): 667–84.
  66. Ibid, p. 667.
  67. Brendesha Tynes, “Role-Taking in Online ‘Classrooms': What Adolescents Are Learning about Race and Ethnicity,” Developmental Psychology, forthcoming.
  68. Brendesha Tynes, “Children, Adolescents and the Culture of Online Hate,” in Handbook of Children, Culture and Violence, edited by Nancy E. Dowd, Dorothy G. Singer, and Robin F. Wilson (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2005), pp. 267–89.
  69. Kimberly J. Mitchell, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor, “Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet,” Journal of Adolescent Health 40, no. 2 (2007): 116–26.
  70. Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor, “Online Victimization of Youth” (see note 26).
  71. Michele L. Ybarra, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor, “Internet Prevention Messages: Targeting the Right Online Behaviors,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161, no. 2 (2007): 138–45.
  72. David Finkelhor, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and Janis Wolak, “Online Victimization: A Report on the Nations' Young People” (Alexandria, Va.: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 2000).
  73. Stefan C. Dombrowski and others, “Protecting Children from Online Sexual Predators: Technological, Psychoeducational, and Legal Considerations,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35, no. 1 (2004): 65–73.
  74. Elinor Ochs and others, “Video Ethnography and Ethnoarcheological Tracking,” University of California–Los Angeles, 2007.
  75. Larry Rosen, Me, MySpace, and I (see note 24).
  76. Gustavo S. Mesch, “Family Relations and the Internet: Exploring a Family Boundaries Approach,” Journal of Family Communication 6, no. 2 (2006): 119–38.
  77. Larry Rosen, Nancy A. Cheever, and L. Mark Carrier, “The Impact of Parental Attachment Style, Limit Setting, and Monitoring on Teen MySpace Behavior,” California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2007 (http://www.csudh.edu/psych/The%20Impact%20of%20Parental%20Attachment%20Style%20Rosen-Cheever-Ca.pdf).
  78. Rich Ling and Brigitte Yttri, “Control, Emancipation, and Status: The Mobile Telephone in Teens' Parental and Peer Relationships,” in Computers, Phones, and the Internet: Domesticating Information Technology, edited by Robert Kraut, Malcolm Brynin, and Sara Kiesler (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 219–34.
  79. Ibid.
  80. Catherine Saillant, “Testing the Bounds of MySpace,” Los Angeles Times, April 8, 2006, p.1 ff.
  81. Rosen, Cheever, and Carrier, “The Impact of Parental Attachment Style” (see note 77).
  82. Juvonen and Gross, “Extending the School Grounds?” (see note 27).
  83. Rosen, Cheever, and Carrier, “The Impact of Parental Attachment Style” (see note 77).
  84. Saillant, “Testing the Bounds of MySpace,” (see note 80).
  85. Larry Rosen, Me, MySpace, and I (see note 24).
  86. Ibid.
  87. Deborah G. Simmons, “Internet Filtering: The Effects in a Middle and High School Setting,” Georgia College and State University (http://info.gcsu.edu/intranet/school_ed/ResearchsofDrSmoothstudents/ Simmons%20Research%20Filter%20Study.pdf [August 3, 2007]).
  88. CityNews, “Cellphone Use Banned in all Toronto Public Schools” (www.citynews.ca/news/news_9977.aspx [August 3, 2007]).
  89. Erik Erikson, Identity and the Life Cycle (New York: W. W. Norton, 1959).
  90. Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995).
  91. Gross, “Adolescent Internet Use” (see note 3).
  92. Patti M. Valkenburg, Alexander Schouten, and Jochen Peter, “Adolescents' Identity Experiments on the Internet,” New Media & Society 7, no. 3 (2005): 383–402.
  93. Juvonen and Gross, “Extending the School Grounds?” (see note 27).