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Journal Issue: Transition to Adulthood Volume 20 Number 1 Spring 2010

Immigration and Adult Transitions
Ruben G. Rumbaut Golnaz Komaie

Endnotes

  1. These estimates and those that follow are based on the 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic Supplement. The CPS is a household survey of representative samples of the civilian non-institutionalized adult population of the United States. It excludes persons living in group quarters (such as those in prison, nursing homes, or military barracks). For our purposes in this article, persons born in Puerto Rico (who are U.S. citizens) are classified as first generation, and those born in the mainland of island-born parents are classified as second generation. In 2008, about 1.1 million Puerto Rican young adults eighteen to thirty-four resided in the mainland; of them, 29 percent were first generation and 35 percent second generation.
  2. Ruben G. Rumbaut, "The Coming of the Second Generation: Immigration and Ethnic Mobility in Southern California," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 620, no. 1 (2008): 196–236. See also Dowell Myers, Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007); and Marta Tienda and others, Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future (Washington: National Academies Press, 2006).
  3. U.S. Census Bureau, "Census Bureau Projects Tripling of Hispanic Population in 50 Years," 2004, www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/001720.html; "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster than Overall Population," 2004, www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/00eighteen39.html; Tienda and others, Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies (see note 2).
  4. Michael Hoefer, Nancy Rytina, and Bryan C. Baker, Office of Immigration Statistics, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2008," February 2009.
  5. For a comparative qualitative study of early adulthood in New York City, San Diego, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and rural Iowa, see Mary C. Waters and others, eds., Coming of Age in America (forthcoming).
  6. Cecilia Menjívar, "Family Reorganization in a Context of Legal Uncertainty: Guatemalan and Salvadoran Immigrants in the United States," International Journal of Sociology of the Family 32, no. 2 (2006): 223–45. See also Roberto G. Gonzales, Born in the Shadows: The Uncertain Futures of the Children of Unauthorized Mexican Migrants (Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of California–Irvine, 2008).
  7. Hoefer, Rytina, and Baker, "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States" (see note 4).
  8. Richard A. Settersten Jr., Frank F. Furstenberg Jr., and Ruben G. Rumbaut, eds., On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy (University of Chicago Press, 2005).
  9. Carolyn Hill and Harry Holzer, "Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood," in The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood, edited by Sheldon Danziger and Cecilia E. Rouse (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007).
  10. Ruben G. Rumbaut, "Ages, Life Stages, and Generational Cohorts: Decomposing the Immigrant First and Second Generations in the United States," International Migration Review 38, no. 3 (2004): 1160–1205.
  11. Waters and others, eds., Coming of Age in America (see note 5); Ruben G. Rumbaut, Golnaz Komaie, and Charlie V. Morgan, "Young Adults in Five Sites of the United States: New York City, San Diego, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Detroit, and Iowa," The Network on Transitions to Adulthood, May 2007, www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/publications/wp.html.
  12. Ruben G. Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, "Young Adults in the United States: A Mid-Decade Profile," The Network on Transitions to Adulthood, October 2007, www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/publications/wp.html.
  13. Helen Levy, "Health Insurance and the Transition to Adulthood," in The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood, edited by Danziger and Rouse (see note 9).
  14. Robert F. Schoeni and Karen E. Ross, "Material Assistance from Families during the Transition to Adulthood," in On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, edited by Settersten, Furstenberg, and Rumbaut (see note 8), pp. 396–416.
  15. Such remittances sent by immigrants worldwide to family members back home, which surpassed $300 billion in 2007 according to World Bank estimates, link communities across national borders and are vital to the economies of many sending countries. See Dean Yang, "How Remittances Help Migrant Families," Migration Information Source, December 2004, www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?iD=270.
  16. Andrew J. Fuligni and Sara Pedersen, "Family Obligation and the Transition to Young Adulthood," Developmental Psychology 38, no. 5 (2002): 856–68. See also Family Obligation and Assistance during Adolescence: Contextual Variations and Developmental Implications, edited by A. J. Fuligni (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001); Carola Suárez-Orozco and Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco, Transformations: Immigration, Family Life, and Achievement Motivation among Latino Adolescents (Stanford University Press, 1995).
  17. Philip Kasinitz and others, Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age (Cambridge and New York: Harvard University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, 2008). See also John Mollenkopf and others, "The Ever-Winding Path: Ethnic and Racial Diversity in the Transition to Adulthood," in On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, edited by Settersten, Furstenberg, and Rumbaut (see note 8), pp. 454–97.
  18. Jennifer Holdaway, "If You Can Make It There … The Transition to Adulthood in New York City," in Coming of Age in America, edited by Waters and others (see note 5).
  19. Ibid.
  20. Similarly, an exodus of tens of thousands of Cubans who came to Miami in daily "freedom flights" during 1965–73 brought a disproportionate number of elderly (since young adults of military age were not allowed to leave) and led to the formation of more three-generation Cuban households in Miami with resident grandparents than among any other U.S. ethnic groups. The grandparents in turn served as built-in child care providers, allowing young Cuban women to enter the labor force in much larger proportions than other Latin American immigrant groups. That dynamic played a significant role in the Cuban family economic "success story." See Lisandro Perez, "Immigrant Economic Adjustment and Family Organization: The Cuban Success Story Reexamined," International Migration Review 20, no. 1 (1986): 4–20.
  21. Linda Borgen and Ruben G. Rumbaut, "Coming of Age in ‘America's Finest City': Transitions to Adulthood among Children of Immigrants in San Diego," in Coming of Age in America, edited by Waters and others (see note 5). The larger CILS study, carried out in the San Diego and metropolitan Miami areas, followed for a decade a panel of more than 5,000 1.5- and second-generation youth, representing seventy-seven different nationalities, from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. See Alejandro Portes and Ruben G. Rumbaut, eds., The Second Generation in Early Adulthood, special issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies 28, no. 6 (2005).
  22. The foreign-born represented less than 5 percent of the 1.4 million active-duty personnel in the U.S. armed forces in 2008, including 8 percent of all navy personnel. Filipinos accounted for 23 percent of all foreign-born personnel, most of them serving in the navy and stationed in San Diego; Mexicans were a distant second, with 9 percent of the total. See Jeanne Batalova, "Immigrants in the U.S. Armed Forces," Migration Information Source, May 2008, www.migrationinformation.org/USFocus/display.cfm?ID=683.
  23. Ruben G. Rumbaut and Kenji Ima, The Adaptation of Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: A Comparative Study (Washington: U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement, 1988).
  24. Jody Agius Vallejo and Jennifer Lee, "Brown Picket Fences: The Immigrant Narrative and ‘Giving Back' among the Mexican-Origin Middle Class," Ethnicities 9 (2009): 5–31. The quotations from Adrián, María, and Lupe are from pages 15–16.
  25. Hoefer, Rytina, and Baker, "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States" (see note 4).
  26. Human Rights Watch, Forced Apart: Families Separated and Immigrants Harmed by United States Deportation Policy, HRW 18, no. 3 (2007), http://hrw.org/reports/2007/us0707.
  27. Pew Hispanic Center, 2007 National Survey of Latinos: As Illegal Immigration Issue Heats Up, Hispanics Feel a Chill (Washington: December 2007).
  28. Arianna Green, "Longtime Residents Not Allowed In-State Tuition," New York Times, March 9, 2009.
  29. Jesse McKinley, "Arizona Law Takes a Toll on Nonresident Students," New York Times, January 27, 2008.
  30. See Roberto G. Gonzales, "Wasted Talent and Broken Dreams: The Lost Potential of Undocumented Students," Immigration Policy in Focus 5, no. 13 (October 2007) (Washington: Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation); and Roberto G. Gonzales, "Young Lives on Hold: The College Dreams of Undocumented Students," The College Board, April 2009, www.collegeboard.com/press/releases/204864.html.
  31. Jason Song, "For an Illegal Immigrant, Getting into UCLA Was the Easy Part," Los Angeles Times, February 2, 2009.
  32. Gonzales, Born in the Shadows: The Uncertain Futures of the Children of Unauthorized Mexican Migrants (see note 6).
  33. Ibid, pp. 206–09.
  34. Jennifer L. Frum, "Postsecondary Educational Access for Undocumented Students: Opportunities and Constraints," American Academic 3, no. 1 (2007): 81–107.
  35. Gonzales, "Wasted Talent and Broken Dreams" (see note 30).
  36. Jeanne Batalova and Michael Fix, "New Estimates of Unauthorized Youth Eligible for Legal Status under the DREAM Act," MPI Immigration Backgrounder, no. 1, October 2006, www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/Backgrounder1_Dream_Act.pdf.
  37. Hans P. Johnson and Deborah Reed, "Can California Import Enough College Graduates to Meet Workforce Needs?" California Counts 8, no. 4 (2007). San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California.